泵的价格
当涉及到汽油和柴油时,每个人都喜欢讨论 "泵的价格"。毕竟,在为个人车辆和开展业务所需的车辆加油之间,无论哪个行业,这一价格都会对产品和服务的成本产生重大影响。但什么决定了汽油和柴油的价格?[...]

|2022年11月29

谈到汽油和柴油,每个人都喜欢讨论 "泵的价格"。毕竟,在为个人车辆和开展业务所需的车辆加油之间,无论哪个行业,这一价格都会对产品和服务的成本产生重大影响。但什么决定了汽油和柴油的价格?经济学101》告诉我们,市场的供需互动决定了商品价格。但实际上是什么影响了加油站的价格?

影响天然气价格的主要因素

标有汽油价格的标志。文字。柴油:2.12,超级:2.15,柴油+:2.22
欧洲的汽油价格。

Four main factors determine the price of fuel: crude oil prices, the cost of refining, distribution & marketing, and taxes. The supply of crude oil is by far the most significant variable, comprising over 40% of the costs for diesel and over 50% of gasoline{1}. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, better known as OPEC, has tremendous influence over the global supply of oil. This is because OPEC controls about 80% of the world’s oil reserves{2]. However, as recent events show, other non-OPEC producers like Russia can affect the supply.

Refining

Four steel oil pipes leading towards a refinery in the distance.
Steel oil pipes from refinery.

Refining is the process that converts crude oil into gasoline, diesel, and other oil derivatives. This determines roughly 20% – 25% of the price of gasoline. Refining costs will vary depending on the product, e.g., low-sulfur highway diesel, ethanol-blended summer formulations, additives, etc. Distribution and marketing (10% – 20%) involve transporting the finished products from the refineries to the regional and local distribution points throughout the country via pipelines, railcars, and trucks. Taxes make up the remaining 12% to 14%.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the price at the pump, or how much you pay to fill up your car or truck, is determined primarily by the global supply and demand for crude oil. However, how far away you are from a refinery and the state you live in (Pennsylvania has the highest gas tax at $0.57/gallon, Alaska has the lowest at $0.08/gallon){3} will also have a significant impact.

资料来源。

1 -https://www.eia.gov/petroleum/gasdiesel/
2 -https://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/data_graphs/330.htm
3- https://www.forbes.com/sites/dereksaul/2022/06/22/these-states-have-the-highest-and-lowest-gas-taxes-as-biden-pushes-tax-holiday/?sh=7dec0d5b2e06

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